Jugular Waveform Components 
 • a wave - due to atrial ...

Jugular Waveform Components 
 • a wave - due to atrial contraction: It occurs just before the first heart sound and carotid pulse.
 • x descent - due to right atrial relaxation.
 • c wave - caused by the bulging of the tricuspid valve closing back toward the right atrium during ventricular isovolumetric contraction.
 • x descent - due to subsequent atrial relaxation.
 • v wave - results when the filling in the atrium overcomes the descent of the base.
 • y descent - is caused by the opening of the tricuspid valve. Thus the y descent cannot begin until after the S2.

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Contributed by

Dr. Gerald Diaz
Board Certified Internal Medicine Hospitalist, GrepMed Editor in Chief 🇵🇭 🇺🇸 - Sign up for an account to like, bookmark and upload images to contribute to our community platform. Follow us on IG:  https://www.instagram.com/grepmed/ | Twitter: https://twitter.com/grepmeded/
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