Causes of Hypercalcemia
Parathyroid hormone–dependent
Primary ...
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Description

Causes of Hypercalcemia

Parathyroid hormone–dependent

Primary hyperparathyroidism

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia

Lithium-associated

Tertiary hyperparathyroidism

Genetic disorders (e.g., multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or type 2A, familial hyperparathyroidism)

Parathyroid hormone–independent

Renal failure, acute or chronic*

Neoplasms

 - Parathyroid hormone–related protein dependent

 - Osteolytic metastases and multiple myeloma

 - Other humoral syndromes

Excess vitamin D

 - Ingested or topical vitamin D analogues

 - Granulomatous disease

 - Williams syndrome

Other endocrine diseases: thyrotoxicosis, adrenal insufficiency

Drugs: vitamin A intoxication, milk-alkali syndrome, thiazide diuretics, theophylline

Other: immobilization, Jansen disease



#Hypercalcemia #Causes #Differential #Diagnosis #Endocrinology
Contributed by

Dr. Gerald Diaz
@GeraldMD
Board Certified Internal Medicine Hospitalist, GrepMed Editor in Chief 🇵🇭 🇺🇸 - Sign up for an account to like, bookmark and upload images to contribute to our community platform. Follow us on IG:  https://www.instagram.com/grepmed/ | Twitter: https://twitter.com/grepmeded/
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