Berlin Criteria for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
- Respiratory symptoms must have begun within one week of a known clinical insult OR the patient must have new or worsening symptoms during the past week.
- Bilateral opacities consistent with pulmonary edema must be present on a chest radiograph or computed tomographic (CT) scan. These opacities must not be fully explained by pleural effusions, lobar collapse, lung collapse, or pulmonary nodules.
- A moderate to severe impairment of oxygenation must be present, as defined by the ratio of arterial
oxygen tension to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2). The severity of the hypoxemia defines
the severity of the ARDS:
- Mild - 200 mm Hg < PaO2 / FiO2 <= 300 mm Hg with PEEP or CPAP >=5 cm H2O
- Moderate - 100 mm Hg < PaO2 / FiO2 <= 200 mm Hg with PEEP >=5 cm H2O
- Severe - PaO2 / FiO2 <= 100 mm Hg with PEEP >= 5cm H2O
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