Causes of Chronic Diarrhea
Osmotic Diarrhea
 1. Medications: ...
503
Description

Causes of Chronic Diarrhea

Osmotic Diarrhea

 1. Medications: antacids, lactulose, sorbitol

 2. Disaccharidase deficiency: lactose intolerance

 3. Factitious diarrhea: magnesium (antacids, laxatives)

Secretory diarrhea

 1. Hormonally mediated: VIPoma, carcinoid, medullary carcinoma of thyroid (calcitonin), Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrin)

 2. Factitious diarrhea (laxative abuse); phenolphthalein, cascara, senna

 3. Villous adenoma

 4. Bile salt malabsorption (idiopathic, ileal resection; Crohn ileitis; postcholecystectomy)

 5. Medications

Inflammatory conditions

 1. Ulcerative colitis

 2. Crohn disease

 3. Microscopic colitis

 4. Malignancy: lymphoma, adenocarcinoma (with obstruction and pseudodiarrhea)

 5. Radiation enteritis

Malabsorption syndromes

 1. Small bowel mucosal disorders: celiac sprue, tropical sprue, Whipple disease, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, small bowel resection (short bowel syndrome), Crohn disease

 2. Lymphatic obstruction: lymphoma, carcinoid, infectious (tuberculosis, MAI), Kaposi sarcoma, sarcoidosis, retroperitoneal fibrosis

 3. Pancreatic disease: chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma

 4. Bacterial overgrowth: motility disorders (diabetes, vagotomy), scleroderma, fistulas, small intestinal diverticula

Motility disorders

 1. Postsurgical: vagotomy, partial gastrectomy, blind loop with bacterial overgrowth

 2. Systemic disorders: scleroderma, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism

 3. Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic infections

 1. Parasites: Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloidiasis stercoralis, Capillaria philippinensis

 2. AIDS-related: Viral: Cytomegalovirus, HIV infection (?) Bacterial: Clostridium difficile, Mycobacterium avium complex Protozoal: Microsporidia (Enterocytozoon bieneusi), Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli

Factitious



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