Causes of mitral stenosis
Rheumatic heart disease

Causes of mitral stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

 - Most common cause worldwide. Commissural fusion, thick MV leaflets with restricted mobility, thickened and shortened chordae

Severe mitral annular calcification

 - Age-related changes, chronic kidney disease


 - Double orifice MV, parachute MV (caused by either one papillary muscle, two fused papillary muscles, or chordae attached to one head of a papillary muscle), congenitally thickened or dysplastic MV leaflets

Secondary to systemic disease (may result in thickened and restricted leaflets/chordae)

 - SLE, MPS, Fabry's disease, carcinoid disease, endomyocardial fibrosis, Whipple's disease

Infective endocarditis (vegetations)/tumor (left atrial myxoma)/ball valve thrombus

 - When large may obstruct MV orifice

Radiation induced

 - Thick MV with stenosis may occur 10—20 years after radiation

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