Types of Renal Calculi

Calcium oxalate
 - Interstitial ...
726
Description

Types of Renal Calculi



Calcium oxalate

 - Interstitial apatite plaque, Low urine volume, Increased urinary calcium excretion, Increased urinary oxalate (dietary)

 - Idiopathic hypercalciuria, Hypercalcemia, Renal tubular acidosis (type 1)

Calcium phosphate

 - Inner medullary collecting duct plaque, Low urine volume, Increased urinary calcium excretion

 - Idiopathic hypercalciuria, Hypercalcemia

Calcium carbonate

 - Hypercalciuria, Hypercarbonaturia

 - Ingestion of calcium carbonate as calcium supplement (>2000 mg/day)

Cystine

 - Cystinuria, Defective transport of cysteine and di-basic amino acids in kidney and intestine, Low urinary citrate

 - Autosomal recessive genetic disease (incidence 1/10,000)

Struvite

 - Magnesium, ammonium and phosphate: alkaline urine

 - Infection with ammonia-producing organisms: Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus and Mycoplasma infections, High dietary magnesium

Uric acid

 - Hyperuricemia

 - Hyperuricemia, Renal tubular acidosis (types 1 and 2)

Drugs

 - Acyclovir, indinavir, atazanavir, triamterene

 - Antiviral treatment for herpes virus or HIV/AIDS, diuretics to treat heart failure



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