Causes of Nephrolithiasis - Differential Diagnosis ...
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Causes of Nephrolithiasis - Differential Diagnosis Algorithm

Radio-opaque - Calcium-containing - 90% of stones

Radiolucent - Non-calcium 10% of stones

Uric Acid Stones:

• Hyperuricosuria

• High protein intake

Soft Stones - Struvite Stones - 10% of stones:

 • Urinary tract infection

Cysteine Stones - Non Calcium containing, but opaque:

 • Cystinuria

Hypercalciuria:

 • Increased PTH

 • High salt intake

 • High protein intake

Hyperoxaluria:

 • Enteric overproduction

 • Low calcium intake

 • Dietary

 • Ethylene glycol ingestion

Stones with decreased solubility:

 • Low urine volume

 • Hypocitraturia

 • RTA Type I

 • High protein intake

Anatomical problem:

 • Medullary sponge kidney



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