Pediatric Trauma Primary Survey: C-ABCDE
C - Catastrophic ...
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Pediatric Trauma Primary Survey: C-ABCDE

C - Catastrophic Bleeding - Life-threatening hemorrhage

 • Apply direct pressure/compression bandage

 • Tourniquet for extremity bleeding (note time applied)

A - Airway Compromise - Position/patency, Need for protection

 • Spinal motion restriction if indicated; expose neck to assess for neck injury/airway threat

 • Jaw thrust to open; oral suction; oral airway (if obtunded)

 • Early intubation with Manual In-Line Stabilization (MILS) if c-spine not cleared; plan for postintubation sedation needs

B - Respiratory Failure - Apnea/poor effort, Signs of tension pneumothorax (PTHX)

 • Assist with BVM/prepare for drug-assisted intubation (See Drug Dosing Binder)

 • Use POCUS to assess for PTX/HTX and/or pericardial tamponade

 • Decompress chest: needle/finger thoracostomy, chest tube

 • Consider chest tube insertion for any intubated patient with a pneumothorax

C - Hemorrhagic shock - Cool skin, ↑ HR, ↓ cap refill, ↓ BP is a late sign of shock

 • Find bleeding source: Head/scalp, Chest/abdomen/pelvis, eFAST exam

 • Bind pelvis if hemodynamically unstable/known or potential pelvic fracture

 • NS/RL up to 40 mL/kq IV rapid bolus, then warmed PRBCs 10-20 mL/kg IV as rapidly as possible; repeat PRN. Move sooner to PRBCs if poor/no response to fluids.

 • If active bleeding/hypotension, limit crystalloid and transfuse: uncrossmatched PRBCs (10-20 mL/kg, repeat PRN). IF ongoing need For blood, activate massive transfusion protocol if available, and transport STAT.

 • Consider qivinq tranexamic acid (TXA) as a load 15-30 mq/kg/dose (MAX 1000-2000 mg) IV over 10-20 minutes, then 5-15 mg/kg/hr IV infusion (MAX 125 ma/hr) for the Tesser of 8 hours or until bleeding stops. Use higher end dosing range for more severe bleeds. Do NOT give TXA if greater than 3 hours since injury.

D - Severe head injury - GCS less than or equal to 8, Responds to pain only / Unresponsive (AVPU)

D - Impending herniation - Unilateral fixed and dilated pupil, Cushing's triad: ↓HR, ↑BP, irregular respirations

 • ↑head of bed 30 degrees, head midline

 • Drug assisted intubation with Manual In-Line Stabilization (MILS), maintain ETCO 35-40 mm Hg

 • Analgesia/sedation plan (see ongoing care box below)

 • Contact Neurosurgery; consider seizure prophylaxis

 • If impending herniation:

    - 3% NaCI 5 mL/kg/dose IV (MAX 250 mL/dose) over 10 minutes (repeat PRN) and/or mannitol I g/kg/dose (MAX 100g) over 15 min

    - Initiate brief period of hyperventilation until responsive pupil, normalized vital signs

Neurogenic shock - ↓HR, ↓BP, Abnormal tone, ↓ power

 • Vaspressor infusion IV/IO to maintain BP:

    - NORepinephrine 

    - Phenylephrine

E - Exposure

 • Maintain normothermia during assessment (warm blankets, forced-air warmer)

 • Rectal examination only if concern for spinal cord injury



#Pediatrics #Trauma #Primary #Survey #CABCDE #management 
Contributed by

Dr. Gerald Diaz
@GeraldMD
Board Certified Internal Medicine Hospitalist, GrepMed Editor in Chief 🇵🇭 🇺🇸 - Sign up for an account to like, bookmark and upload images to contribute to our community platform. Follow us on IG:  https://www.instagram.com/grepmed/ | Twitter: https://twitter.com/grepmeded/
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