Hypersensitivity Types and Their Mechanisms
Type I - lgE - Soluble antigen
- Allergen-specific lgE antibodies bind to mast cells via their Fc receptor. When the specific allergen binds to the lgE, cross-linking of lgE induces degranulation of mast cells.
- Local and systemic anaphylaxis, seasonal hay fever, food allergies, and drug allergies
Type II - IgG or IgM - Cell-bound antigen
- IgG or IgM antibody binds to cellular antigen, leading to complement activation and cell lysis. IgG can also mediate ADCC with cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.
- Red blood cell destruction after transfusion with mismatched blood types or during hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Type Ill - IgG and IgM - Soluble antigen
- Antigen-antibody complexes are deposited in tissues. Complement activation provides inflammatory mediators and recruits neutrophils. Enzymes released from neutrophils damage tissue.
- Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus
Type IV - T cells - Soluble or cell-bound antigen
- TH1 cells secrete cytokines, which activate macrophages and cytotoxic T cells.
- Contact dermatitis, type I diabetes mellitus, and multiple sclerosis
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