X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia: Pathogenesis and clinical ...
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Description

X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia: Pathogenesis and clinical findings

The epidemiology of this disease is 1/340,000 births and roughly double this rate in male births. 40% of patients diagnosed with XLA have a family history of the disease. The remainder likely arises via sporadic mutation. Signs of immunodeficiency may appear 3-9 months after birth, due to a decline in maternal antibody.



Genetic Predisposition -> Mutation of BTK gene on the X chromosome -> Impaired function of BTK, a signal transduction protein involved in B cell maturation -> Decreased Phospholipase C signaling downstream of BTK -> Impaired maturation of B cells from precursor cells -> Impaired B cell function -> Inability to produce all classes of immunoglobulin proteins (antibodies) -> Complete deficiency in adaptive humoral immunity

Signs/Symptoms/Findings:

 • Absence of mature B cells (CD19+) and plasma cells in blood and bone marrow

 • Absence of tonsils, adenoids, +/- lymph nodes

 • Increased susceptibility to infection, especially bacterial infections (e.g. bacterial pneumonia)

 • Decreased or undetectable levels of IgA, IgG, and IgM

 • Decreased or undetectable antibodies in response to immunizations and common antigens



#Agammaglobulinemia #XLinked  #pathophysiology #immunology
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The Calgary Guide to Understanding Disease
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Account created for The Calgary Guide to Understanding Disease - Linking pathophysiology to clinical presentation - http://calgaryguide.ucalgary.ca/
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